This page contains references to pericoital, postcoital and emergency contraception (EC) research literature. If you want like to share articles and references from your country, please email us at cpuig [at] eeirh [dot] org.



  • US Food and Drug Administration, “Decisional Memorandum: New Drug Application 21998, Supplement 5, Levonorgestrel 1.5 mg Tablet Emergency Contraceptive Labeling Supplement for Update to Mechanism of Action Information” FDA Access Data, December 23, 2022. Available at:
  • Iacobucci G. National scheme to offer emergency hormonal contraception in pharmacies will cut GP workload, say researchers. doi:10.1136/bmj.o2832. Abstract available at
  • Odwe G, McCann B, Liambila W, et al. Feasibility of e-commerce pharmacy provision and acceptability of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg for pericoital use in urban and peri-urban settings in Kenya: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health Published Online First: 02 November 2022. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2022-201653. Abstract available at: 
  • Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare Clinical Effectiveness Unit (FSRH CEU). Statement: Response to new evidence relating to dose of levonorgestrel oral emergency contraception for individuals with higher body mass index (BMI).  4 August 2022. Available at:
  • Edelman AB, Hennebold JD, Bond K, Lim JY, Cherala G, Archer DF, Jensen JT. Double Dosing Levonorgestrel-Based Emergency Contraception for Individuals With Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Jul 1;140(1):48-54. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004717. Epub 2022 Jun 7. PMID: 35849455; PMCID: PMC9205298. Abstract available at:
  • Tong YW, Lo SST, Fung BWK, Cameron ST, Ng EHY, Li RHW. Acceptability of different mechanisms of action of contraception in women: a questionnaire survey. BMJ Sex Reprod Health. 2022 Apr;48(2):117-122. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2021-201110. Epub 2021 Nov 1. PMID: 34725054. Abstract available at:
  • Endler M, Li R, Gemzell Danielsson K. Effect of levonorgestrel emergency contraception on implantation and fertility: A review. Contraception. 2022 May;109:8-18. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2022.01.006. Epub 2022 Jan 23. PMID: 35081389.
  • Cahill EP, Lerma K, Shaw KA, Blumenthal PD. Potential candidate for oral pericoital contraception: evaluating ulipristal acetate plus cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor for ovulation disruption. BMJ Sex Reprod Health. 2022 Jul;48(3):217-221. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2021-201446. Epub 2022 Apr 25. PMID: 35470225. Abstract available at:
  • Tenaw LA (2022) Practice and determinants of emergency contraceptive utilization among women seeking termination of pregnancy in Northwest Ethiopia—A mixed quantitative and qualitative study. PLoS ONE 17(2): e0263776. Abstract available at:



  • Italia, S. ., Schröder-Bäck, P. and Brand, H. . (2020) “Switching emergency contraceptives to non-prescription status and unwanted pregnancy among adult and teenage women: A long-term European comparative study”, South Eastern European Journal of Public Health (SEEJPH), 13(1). doi: 10.4119/seejph-3277. Abstract available at


In 2014 ECEC did a compilation of Europe-based EC literature, which is available here:


  • Westley E, Glasier A. Emergency contraception: dispelling the myths and misperceptions. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Apr;88(4):243-4. doi: 10.2471/BLT.10.077446. PMID: 20431781; PMCID: PMC2855611.

Last update: March 2023

Previous updates: December 2022