This page contains references to pericoital, postcoital and emergency contraception (EC) research literature. If you want to share articles and references from your country, please email us at ecec [at] eeirh [dot] org.


  • Qato DM, Guadamuz JS, Myerson R. Changes in emergency contraceptive fills after Massachusetts’ statewide standing order. JAMA. 2024. doi:10.1001/jama.2024.11715
  • Bell, S., Gibbs, S., Winskell, A. et al. Acceptability of an on-demand pericoital oral contraceptive pill: a systematic scoping reviewReprod Health 21, 93 (2024).
  • Qato DM, Myerson R, Shooshtari A, Guadamuz JS, Alexander GC. Use of Oral and Emergency Contraceptives After the US Supreme Court’s Dobbs Decision. JAMA Netw Open. 2024;7(6):e2418620. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.18620.
  • Stevenson TB, Thapaliya K, Moore V, Mazza D, Grzeskowiak LE. Accessibility of oral emergency contraceptives in Australian community pharmacies. Contraception. 2024 May 4:110480. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2024.110480. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38710355.
  • Jensen JT, Edelman A, Westhoff CL, Schreiber CA, Archer DF, Teal S, Thomas M, Brown J, Blithe DL. Use of serum evaluation of contraceptive and ovarian hormones to assess reduced risk of pregnancy among women presenting for emergency contraception in a multicenter clinical trial. Contraception. 2024 Apr 24:110475. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2024.110475. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38670302.
  • Alison Edelman, Jeffrey T Jensen, Jill Brown, Michael Thomas, David F. Archer, Courtney A. Schreiber, Stephanie Teal, Carolyn Westhoff, Clint Dart and Diana L. Blithe, Emergency contraception for
    individuals weighing 80kg or greater: a randomized trial of 30 mg ulipristal acetate and 1.5 mg or 3.0 mg levonorgestrel
    , Contraception, (2024) doi:
  • Vander Steen, G., Ropers, J., Rousseau, C., Joris, A., Gilles, C., Rozenberg, S., & Manigart, Y. (2024). Pharmacist recommendations for emergency contraception in Belgium: a simulated user study. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, 1–5.
  • Lungfiel, G., Mandlmeier, F., Kunow, C., & Langer, B. (2023). Oral emergency contraception practices of community pharmacies: a mystery caller study in the capital of Germany, Berlin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 16(1).
  • WHO (2024) Recommendations on self-care interventions: Making over-the-counter emergency contraceptive pills available without a prescription. Geneva , Switzerland: WHO. Available in English.
  • Brandon Wagner, Kelly Cleland, Increases in retail sales of over-the-counter levonorgestrel emergency contraception in the United States, 2016–2022, Contraception, 2024, 110420, ISSN 0010-7824,


  • Raymond Hang Wun Li, Sue Seen Tsing Lo, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Carol Ho Yi Fong, Pak Chung Ho, Ernest Hung Yu Ng, Oral emergency contraception with levonorgestrel plus piroxicam: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial, The Lancet, 2023, ISSN 0140-6736, (
  • Buckingham PLM, Hussainy S, Soon J, Norman WV, Bateson D, Mazza D. Improving access to quality contraceptive counselling in community pharmacy: examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in Australia. BMJ Sex Reprod Health. 2023 Apr;49(2):87-96. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2022-201623. Epub 2022 Nov 21. PMID: 36410765.
  • USAID Global Health Supply Chain Program. Emergency Contraception Trends from the Contraceptive Security Indicators Survey (March 2023) Available at:
  • Ramanadhan S, Goldstuck N, Henderson JT, Che Y, Cleland K, Dodge LE, Edelman A. Progestin intrauterine devices versus copper intrauterine devices for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2023, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD013744. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013744.pub2 Available at:
  • Jennifer Salcedo, Kelly Cleland, Deborah Bartz, and Ivana Thompson. Society of Family Planning Clinical Recommendation: Emergency Contraception. Contraception 121 (May 2023): 109958. Available at: and also at the Society of Family Planning website.
  • Wu J, Trahair E, Happ M, Swartz J. TikTok, #IUD, and User Experience With Intrauterine Devices Reported on Social Media. Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Jan 1;141(1):215-217. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000005027. Epub 2022 Dec 5. PMID: 36473194; PMCID: PMC9892286.


  • US Food and Drug Administration, “Decisional Memorandum: New Drug Application 21998, Supplement 5, Levonorgestrel 1.5 mg Tablet Emergency Contraceptive Labeling Supplement for Update to Mechanism of Action Information” FDA Access Data, December 23, 2022. Available at:
  • CEU Statement: Response to new evidence relating to dose of levonorgestrel oral emergency contraception for individuals with higher body mass index (BMI), published by The Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) in August 2022. Available in English.
  • Iacobucci G. National scheme to offer emergency hormonal contraception in pharmacies will cut GP workload, say researchers. doi:10.1136/bmj.o2832. Abstract available at
  • Odwe G, McCann B, Liambila W, et al. Feasibility of e-commerce pharmacy provision and acceptability of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg for pericoital use in urban and peri-urban settings in Kenya: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health Published Online First: 02 November 2022. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2022-201653. Abstract available at: 
  • Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare Clinical Effectiveness Unit (FSRH CEU). Statement: Response to new evidence relating to dose of levonorgestrel oral emergency contraception for individuals with higher body mass index (BMI).  4 August 2022. Available at:
  • Edelman AB, Hennebold JD, Bond K, Lim JY, Cherala G, Archer DF, Jensen JT. Double Dosing Levonorgestrel-Based Emergency Contraception for Individuals With Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Jul 1;140(1):48-54. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004717. Epub 2022 Jun 7. PMID: 35849455; PMCID: PMC9205298. Abstract available at:
  • Ceulemans, M.; Willekens, J; Cavens, L; DeWulf, Isabelle;  Peeters, L.; Roose, N.; Foulon, V. Knowledge and counseling preferences of the public and pharmacy staff on emergency contraception: Results of a cross-sectional study in Belgium. Contraception 115 (2022) 27–30.
  • Ceulemans, M.; Brughmans, M.; Poortmans, L.-L.; Spreuwers, E.; Willekens, J.; Roose, N.; DeWulf, I.; Foulon, V. Development and Pilot Testing of a Dispensing Protocol on Emergency Contraceptive Pills for Community Pharmacists in Belgium. Pharmacy 2022, 10, 58.
  • Tong YW, Lo SST, Fung BWK, Cameron ST, Ng EHY, Li RHW. Acceptability of different mechanisms of action of contraception in women: a questionnaire survey. BMJ Sex Reprod Health. 2022 Apr;48(2):117-122. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2021-201110. Epub 2021 Nov 1. PMID: 34725054. Abstract available at:
  • Endler M, Li R, Gemzell Danielsson K. Effect of levonorgestrel emergency contraception on implantation and fertility: A review. Contraception. 2022 May;109:8-18. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2022.01.006. Epub 2022 Jan 23. PMID: 35081389.
  • Cahill EP, Lerma K, Shaw KA, Blumenthal PD. Potential candidate for oral pericoital contraception: evaluating ulipristal acetate plus cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor for ovulation disruption. BMJ Sex Reprod Health. 2022 Jul;48(3):217-221. doi: 10.1136/bmjsrh-2021-201446. Epub 2022 Apr 25. PMID: 35470225. Abstract available at:
  • Tenaw LA (2022) Practice and determinants of emergency contraceptive utilization among women seeking termination of pregnancy in Northwest Ethiopia—A mixed quantitative and qualitative study. PLoS ONE 17(2): e0263776. Abstract available at:
  • Leon-Larios, F.; Ruiz-Ferron, C.; Jalon-Neira, R.-M.; Praena-Fernández, J.-M. Nursing Students’ Knowledge, Awareness, and Experiences of Emergency Contraception Pills’ Use. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 418.



  • Italia, S. ., Schröder-Bäck, P. and Brand, H. . (2020) “Switching emergency contraceptives to non-prescription status and unwanted pregnancy among adult and teenage women: A long-term European comparative study”, South Eastern European Journal of Public Health (SEEJPH), 13(1). doi: 10.4119/seejph-3277. Abstract available at


  • Rafie, S., Stone, R. H., Wilkinson, T. A., Borgelt, L. M., El-Ibiary, S. Y., & Ragland, D. (2017). Role of the community pharmacist in emergency contraception counseling and delivery in the United States: current trends and future prospects. Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice, 6, 99–108.


In 2014 ECEC did a compilation of Europe-based EC literature, which is available here:



Last update: December 2023

Previous updates: July, June and March 2023, December 2022